Taste often means two different things.
In everyday language, taste is the set of gustatory, olfactory and sensory sensations, that is to say the perception of all the sensations caused in the mouth by a food or a liquid (flavor, odor and texture ). This set of perceptions is actually called " flavor ". (1)
On the other hand, for the specialist, the definition of taste is limited to gustation: the sensation resulting from the stimulation of the taste buds on the tongue.
So ultimately, taste is the sense that identifies flavors (chemicals in the form of liquid solutions in the mouth).
It allows us to assess the nutrient content of food and is essential for the survival of most animals. (2)
It consists of 5 primary flavors: sweet, salty, bitter, sour, umami (from Japanese "tasty", associated with the sensation produced by monosodium glutamate).(1)1. Loïc Briand. La chimie du goût. DEUG. (La chimie du goût), 2018, 16 p. (hal-02791513)
2. Heckmann JG et al. Neurological aspects of taste disorders. Neurological review, Arch Neurol 2003;60:667-71.